14.  The Legal System: Women Criminal Defendants; Women in Prison

Suffragettes behind bars

14.  The Legal System:  Women Criminal Defendants; Women in Prison

International Network for Incarcerated Girls and Women
“INIGW members advocate for the rights of incarcerated girls and women in their respective countries/states, and we support each other and other groups & individuals advocating for incarcerated females in various locations.” https://theinigw.wixsite.com/inigw

Keep Prisons Single Sex

“... to campaign for the sex-based rights of women in prison to single-sex accommodation and same-sex searching. We also campaign for data on offending to be recorded by sex throughout the criminal justice system.”

Women’s Liberation Front: Women’s Prisons
“Incarcerated women are overwhelmingly victims of male violence.”

She took my papers, the papers that had followed me from the Khobar police station to jail, and pointed at a place where I was supposed to sign. On the paper there was a line for charges. In the blank space, someone had written “driving while female.” 
― Manal al-Sharif, Daring to Drive: A Saudi Woman's Awakening 


American Psychological Association.  “Incarcerated women: Poverty, trauma and unmet need.” (2019)

Jo Bartosch.  “Barbie Kardashian: The grisly reality of self-ID: In Ireland, even the most violent and unhinged sex offenders are being housed in women’s prisons.” [2023]

_____. “Why did we ever let male rapists into women’s prisons?: Vulnerable women have been put at serious risk by the state’s blind devotion to trans ideology.”  [2022]

Julie Bindel.  “'I was sexually assaulted in a women's prison... by a fellow inmate with male genitalia': Read Amy's story and decide - can it be right to put trans sex offenders in female jails?” [2021]

_____. “Trans activism’s war on solidarity: Witches are drowned and bitches burned at the stake.” [2021]

_____.  “When abused women fight back: Those trapped in violent relationships are still being let down by the justice system.”  [2021]

_____. "Why are we locking up abused women?: The Domestic Violence Bill doesn't do enough to protect victims from the actions of violent partners." [2020]

_____.  “The women jailed for fighting back: The re-trial of Fri Martin shows how little the justice system cares for victims of domestic violence.” [2021]

_____. "Aileen Wuornos was no monster: Why do we continue to sensationalise this tormented woman's desperate life?" [2020] https://archive.ph/pjUdo

Annie Brown.  "'Too dangerous for the dock' prisoner Andrew Burns held down by 11 guards after nurse attack in hospital: The notorious thug was recently let off an assault charge because he was deemed too dangerous to take to a courtroom."

Correctional Service Canada.  "Gender diverse offenders with a history of sexual offending.” [2022]

Matt Dathan. “Ministers to have veto on where trans prisoners serve sentences.”  [2022]

The Economist.  "Putting trans women in female prisons sets up a clash of rights: The policy is likely to create more problems than it solves.”  [2021]

Zachary Elliot.  “Prison segregation by sex, not subjectivity.”  [2023]

Libby Emmons.  "Biological men transferred to women's prisons allegedly rape and assault inmates." [2021]

Renee Gerlich. “Cassandra lives: From politics to the courtroom, women are disbelieved.” [2020]  

Genevieve Gluck.  “ACLU represented transgender terrorist, diaper fetishist to secure gender self-identification in NJ women’s prison.”  [2023]

_____.  “AUS: female inmates protest transfer of transgender sex offender." [2022]

_____.  "CANADA: Man who raped infant quietly moved to prison with mother-baby unit after transgender claim.” [2023]

Amber S. Jackson. “California women's prison passes out condoms to inmate population as arrival of ‘transwomen’ causes explosion of risky sex.”[2021]

Melissa Jeltsen.  "Woman says police forced her to give birth in handcuffs: The woman claims she was shackled during her labor, over the objections of medical staff who told police the practice was illegal." [2018]

Jimmy Jenkins.  “Arizona inducing the labor of pregnant prisoners against their will.” [2023]

Morgan Laird. “What’s Current: Campaigners in Ottawa protest the transfer of male offenders to women’s prisons” [2022]

Victoria Law. “Against carceral feminism.” [2014]

Sam Levin.  “Ex-guard charged with 95 counts of sexual abuse in California women’s prison:  Gregory Rodriguez accused of abusing 13 people over a decade, as advocate say case highlights systemic sexual violence in prisons.” [2023]

Jaymi McCann.  “More than half of trans inmates have been convicted of a sexual offence: Of the 146 such prisoners in jails across England and Wales, 87 were originally found guilty of a sex crime.”  [2022]

Ruth Nakagawa. “California prison report fails to note the obvious.” [2023]

Oliver Norton.  “TWIST PERV: Rape monster who target female victims demands move to WOMEN’S prisons.” [2023]

Gearóid Ó Loingsigh.  “Limerick Prison: The rights of female prisoners.” [2021]

Mary Margaret Olohan.  "Just how many imprisoned men who identify as transgender are guilty of sexual assault? More than half, new data shows.” [2023]

Reduxx Team.   “SCOTLAND: Trans-identified male guilty of raping two women with “her penis” sent to women’s prison.”  [2023]

Patrick Reilly.  “Transgender Rikers inmate sentenced to 7 years for raping female prisoner.” [2022]

Hugh Ryan. "The Women's House of Detention: a queer history of a forgotten prison." [2022] 

Diane Shaw. “Abuse of incarcerated women by male trans inmates drives lawsuit against California.” [2021]

_____. "‘Transgender’ inmates sexually assault, rape female inmates at a shocking rate, Ministry of Justice reveals." [2020]

Abigail Shrier. “Male inmates in women’s prisons: If Congress passes the Equality Act, California’s dangerous policy would go nationwide.” [2021]

Anna Slatz.  “Almost 50% of trans inmates in federal custody for sex offenses.”  [2023]

_____. "Breaking:  Female inmate sues City of New York after being sexually assaulted by male predator who was 'instructed' to claim he was transgender in order to be housed with women." [2024]


_____. “Women being ‘punished’ for complaining about male transfers: inmate in California women’s prison.” [2022]


Truth be told, whether free or incarcerated, women were not safe anywhere. Since the dawn of time, they had been the victims of decisions that were taken without their consent. 
― Victoria Mas, The Mad Women's Ball

John M. Smoot; Don Hamilton, ed..  “The trial court and gender theory.” [2022]

STILLTish.  “The apartheid of sex: Rothblatt.” [2021]                                     

The Sunday Times. [UK] “Trans prisoners ‘switch gender again’ once freed from women’s units.” [2022]

David Walker.  “Anger as trans inmates revert to males when they leave Scottish prisons.” [2022]

Kalyn Womack. “Black teenage girl who killed her rapist ordered to pay $150k to his estate: The bill created to protect trafficking victims in cases like this did not get passed in the state.” [2022]

Shay Woulahan.  “UK: Teen girl hospitalized after being attacked in unisex school bathroom.” [2023]


By 1980, when I came out of prison, The Sun did a campaign to stop putting vice girls in prison. We've talked about it ever since and nothing has been done about it.
― Cynthia Payne

Women’s Declaration International. “Lauren Adams - USA - Fighting for single-sex prisons.” [2022] VIDEO

The culture of sexual violence was so pervasive that even the prison chaplain was sexually assaulting women when they came to the chapel. 
― Bryan Stevenson

Feminist Criminology PERIODICAL
Peer reviewed journal.
“…research related to women, girls, and crime within the context of a feminist critique of criminology. Published five times a year by SAGE Publications as the official journal of the Division on Women and Crime of the American Society of Criminology, this international publication focuses on research and theory that highlights the gendered nature of crime.          
         The feminist critique of criminology incorporates a perspective that the paths to crime differ for males and females. Therefore, research that uses sex as a control variable often fails to illuminate the factors that predict female criminality.”



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